One of the method for modifying bitumen is emulsification with water which enhance bitumen properties incredibly. Another advantages of modification is that it can be applied cold (80°C). Emulsion bituminous asphalt consist of two immiscible liquids which are stabilized by emulsifier. They usually used for tack coats, hot-mixed asphalt, prime coats, chip seal. Firstly Anionic emulsion were developed and because cationic emulsion has more adhesion properties they are more favored especially in tack coating. The type (chemistry) of the emulsifying agent used, determines the designation. During application, the water in a bitumen emulsion is either lost by evaporation, or it may separate from the bitumen because of the chemical nature of the surface to which the emulsion is applied. This process is referred to as breaking. Depending on the type of emulsifier the bitumen particles can be both positive and negative. Emulsions in which the bitumen droplets are negatively charged are called anionic emulsions. While, Emulsions in which the particles are positively charged are called cationic emulsions.
Bituminous asphalt emulsion CMS-1 is a medium setting cationic asphalt, which has positive charge leading reaction between the emulsion and pavement. The primer bitumen which is used for emulsification is obtained from crude oil. Cationic medium setting bituminous asphalt have many advantages including: no additional heat, little or no hydrocarbon and can use cold materials at remote sites.
The main applications asphalt emulsion CMS-1 are crack filling, fog seal, cold mix, stabilization and agriculture.